created in government, and advocated for a separation of powers within the national government. As the Federalists moved to amend the Articles and create a new Constitution, they dubbed their opposition Anti-Federalists. Benjamin Franklin gave a speech shortly after the Constitution had been completed, urging unanimity among all states. A common complaint of Anti-Federalists was that the Constitution provided for a centralized, rather than federal, government, and that a truly federal form of government was a leaguing of states, as under the Articles of Confederation. In 1789, James Madison introduced the amendments to the 1st United States Congress as a series of legislative articles. The Federalists defended the weakest points of the Constitution (such as its current lack of a bill of individual rights) by suggesting that current protections were sufficient and that Congress could always propose amendments later.
Stuyvesant had formally banned all religions other than that of the Dutch Reformed Church from being practiced in the colony, in accordance with the laws of the Dutch Republic. Madisons work on the Bill of Rights also reflected centuries of English law and philosophy, further modified by the principles of the American Revolution. On September 28, 1787, after some debate, Congress unanimously decided to submit the Constitution to the states for action. He carefully considered the state amendment recommendations as well. Historians gathered the best and most influential of the subsequent articles and speeches into a collection known as the Anti- Federalist Papers, alluding to the well-known Federalist Papers. The Bill of Rights is the collective name for the first 10 amendments to the US Constitution. After the war, a political group that felt that the national government under the Articles was too weak took on the name Federalist for themselves. The Anti-Federalists appealed to these sentiments in the ratification convention in Massachusetts. A republic, Madison wrote, on giving advice essay by joseph addison differs from a democracy because its government is placed in the hands of delegates. Anti-Federalists caused lengthy ratification debates in most states and were responsible for the eventual adoption of the Bill of Rights.
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